sell throughThe current anthropological and archeological paradigm tells us that anatomically modern humans burst forth from Eastern Africa about 100,000 years ago, occupying the Levant. After a substantial pause expansions along the Indian Ocean coast all the way to Australia took place between 70,000 and 60,000 years ago and then around 40,000 years ago another expansion took place into Europe. During all this time H. sapiens were hunter-gatherers. It was not until the beginning of the Holocene that agriculture was invented and permanent, large human settlements arose. That is the story but there is quite a bit wrong with it.
It is assumed that between their beginnings and this mass populating of Southern Asia humans were hunter-gatherers. This is based upon the archeological evidence found to date. There is a glaring flaw in the logic, however. From 70,000 to 20,000 years ago the ocean levels were about 120 meters lower than today. The cities and farms of that time, if they did exist, are now under that much water. There have been claims of submerged cities off the coast of India that have been met by the scientific community with extreme skepticism. They actually have it exactly backward. Rather they should be thinking that if anything interesting was going on 70,000 to 20,000 years ago, it should be found under water.
Having said that, when anatomically modern humans exploded forth, there is quite a lot of evidence that they hunted and they gathered. They may have engaged in agriculture as well. It isn't evident until there are clear morphological changes due to domestication. However, they seem to very easily supplant the existing hominids.
I have recently speculated that H. sapiens had a prohibitive advantage over indigenous populations because they had domesticated dogs. So far there is no evidence that archaic humans did so. While, until recently, it was supposed that dogs were first domesticated about 7,000 y.a., recent DNA evidence indicates that modern dogs were domesticated from the grey wolf as much as 32k y.a. in Europe. This matches the approximate time when H. sapiens replaced H. Neandertaliensis.
Earlier domestications may have taken place but the descendents are now extinct. What is beyond doubt is that a human/dog pack is both far more formidable as hunters and far less easily predated.
No Bottlenecks in Human History
We are all descended matrilineally from one woman who lived in Africa betweenf 200kya and 100kya. We are all descended patrilinearily from one man who lived in Africa between 200kya and 100kya.